Under the United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees of 1951, a refugee is more narrowly defined (in Article 1A) as a person who "owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country".
Amnesty International Canada extended the term refugee to include displaced persons who may fall outside the legal definition in the UN Convention, either because they have left their home countries because of war and not because of a fear of persecution, or because they have been forced to migrate within their home countries.
The Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, adopted by the Organization of African Unity in 1969, employs a definition expanded from the Convention's, including people who left their countries of origin not only because of persecution but also due to acts of external aggression, occupation, domination by foreign powers or serious disturbances of public order.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR] states ‘The terms asylum-seeker and refugee are often confused: an asylum-seeker is someone who says he or she is a refugee, but whose claim has not yet been definitively evaluated”.
Asylum claims in the UK
Home office statistics show that in 2010 the initial outcomes of asylum claims were that 74% were refused, 8% were granted temporary protection and only 17% were granted asylum.
Many of those who are refused at first application have grounds for appeal. However they lose their accommodation and financial support until their appeal is prepared, submitted and accepted as an appeal. Hence they are destitute.
If they are able to survive this period then the outcomes of appeals are that 27% are granted asylum. It is seen that the process is such that well over half of those granted asylum are only successful because they appeal.
3,760 appellants were granted asylum in 2010 on appeal after an initial refusal. If they had not appealed they would have been forcibly returned to the country and situation from which they had fled.
PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELLING TRAINING AT REFUGEE THERAPY CENTRE
The Refugee Therapy Centre http://www.refugeetherapy.org.uk, an Organisational Member of UKCP, provides psychotherapy and support for Refugees and Asylum seekers
Raising children as a single parent
How to help children manage their anger
Coping with changes in adolescents
Alayarian, A. (2008). Consequences of Denial: The Armenian Genocide. Karnac Books: London.
Alayarian, A. (2007) Resilience, Suffering and Creativity: The Work of the Refugee Therapy Centre. Ed. Karnac Books: London.
As well as books by Aida Alayarian (above) see more at:
http://www.refugeetherapy.org.uk/what-we-do/leaflets-publications.aspx - sthash.YlfvrCKb.dpuf
Freedom from Torture: Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture http://www.freedomfromtorture.org/
Each day, staff and volunteers work with survivors of torture in centres in Birmingham, Glasgow, London, Manchester and Newcastle (and via a capacity-building presence in Yorkshire and Humberside) to help them begin to rebuild their lives. Sharing this expertise with partner organisations in the UK and internationally, Freedom from Torture operates as a centre of learning and knowledge in the care, treatment and protection of torture survivors.
Their main activities are focused on Rehabilitation and Influencing others